‘Genes for pre-eclampsia’ discovered

first_img Share HealthLifestyle ‘Genes for pre-eclampsia’ discovered by: – March 23, 2011 Tweet 46 Views   no discussions Sharecenter_img Sharing is caring! Share Scientists say they have identified genetic errors that appear to increase a pregnant woman’s chance of getting the potentially life-threatening condition called pre-eclampsia.Around four in every 100 women develops this problem of high blood pressure and leaky kidneys during pregnancy.Now researchers have found faulty DNA may be to blame in some cases, PLoS Medicine journal reports.The discovery could lead to new ways to spot and treat those at risk, they say.The US researchers from the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis analysed DNA from over 300 pregnant women.Sixty of these were otherwise healthy women who were hospitalised because they developed severe pre-eclampsia.The remaining 250 were women who were being monitored for other health complications. Forty of these also went on to develop pre-eclampsia.DNA analysis revealed a few genetic errors shared by five of the 60 otherwise healthy women and seven of the 40 “higher-risk pregnancy” women who developed pre-eclampsia.The genes on which the errors were identified (MCP factor I and factor H) play a role in regulating immune response and the researchers believe this could explain their possible link to pre-eclampsia.Scientists have suspected that problems with the immune system provoke many cases of pre-eclampsia because women with lupus and certain other autoimmune diseases – like 250 of the women in the study – have an increased risk of the disorder.The researchers now plan to study more pregnant women and other genes to further their understanding.Professor Basky Thilaganathan, spokesman for the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, said: “This work shows an association.“At best genes like these might identify 10-15% of pre-eclampsia, so it’s relative importance may not be sensational. But it may allow us to study new treatments to prevent or delay the onset of pre-eclampsia and to know which women need closer surveillance.”He said that currently the only real way to halt the condition was to deliver the baby. This can be relatively risk free if the pregnancy is nearing its natural end anyway, but can be risky if the baby is premature.Source: BBC Newslast_img read more

Egypt’s Hector Cuper confident, Uganda’s Micho optimistic

first_img“Egypt are thirsting for revenge and we must be aware that they have built a new, very good team since Kumasi.”Cranes coach Micho. FILE PHOTOUganda coach Milutin “Micho” Sredojevic says that although his team are seeded last in the group, they can match Ghana, Egypt and Congo.“We can create shocks even though our budget is probably 10 percent of some rivals,” said the Serb, who has worked in numerous African countries.“While some other African countries liken us to a motorcycle competing in a Formula One race, I disagree. We can match any team.”Congo coach Pierre Lechantre is not pessimistic either, although Ghana and Egypt seem easily the strongest sides in the group.“We will face very strong teams, but Congo have a chance,” said the Frenchman, who guided Cameroon to the 2000 Africa Cup of Nations title.The Group C opponents of Morocco coach Herve Renard include Ivory Coast, the country he steered to the 2015 Cup of Nations title, Mali and Gabon.“All the groups are tough,” he said. “You can sense being in a good position, but always have to be careful.”Senegal are favoured to top Group D ahead of Cape Verde, South Africa and Burkina Faso and compete at a World Cup, 16 years after reaching the quarter-finals.But South Africa coach Ephraim “Shakes” Mashaba says: “I am confident we will be in Russia. The draw made me very happy, although it is not going to be easy.”“We have to start very well,” he said, conscious that a draw against Gambia and a loss to Mauritania in Cup of Nations qualifiers means they will not be part of the 2017 tournament in Gabon.Group A comprises Tunisia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea and Libya and a blockbuster Group B includes Algeria, Nigeria, Cameroon and Zambia.Share on: WhatsApp Group  A :Libya, Guinea, DR Congo, TunisiaGroup B: Zambia, Cameroon, Nigeria, AlgeriaGroup C: Gabon, Morocco, Mali, Ivory CoastGroup D: Burkina Faso, South Africa, Cape Verde, SenegalGroup E: Uganda, Congo, Egypt, Ghana Johannesburg, South Africa | AFP |Egypt coach Hector Cuper says it is irrelevant that 2018 World Cup qualifying opponents Ghana humiliated the north Africans three years ago, declaring: “We fear no team.”The two countries were placed in Group E with Congo Brazzaville and Uganda when 20 nations were split into five groups this weekend, with the winners going to the finals in Russia.Ghana crushed Egypt 6-1 in the first leg of a 2014 World Cup play-off and won 7-3 overall to secure a place in Brazil.“I know what Ghana did to Egypt, but that is history,” insisted Argentine Cuper, the former manager of Valencia and Inter Milan.“We fear no team, our target is qualification for the 2018 World Cup, and what lies ahead for the Egyptian squad is work, work and more work.”Thrashing by Ghana history, says Egypt coachGhana Football Association president Kwesi Nyantakyi believes the unexpectedly big winning margin achieved by the Black Stars at home three years ago will work against them this time.“That triumph does not give us any psychological advantage,” he stressed. “On the contrary, it is a disadvantage.last_img read more

Male and Female footballers we expect to dominate in 2020

first_imgImage Courtesy: Barcelona/Juventus/GettyAdvertisement 921nNBA Finals | Brooklyn Vspmvpv8Wingsuit rodeo📽Sindre Ephhi( IG: @_aubreyfisher @imraino ) wm4flWould you ever consider trying this?😱cd0kxvCan your students do this? 🌚k9lRoller skating! Powered by Firework As we enter a new year and a new decade, its time to take a look back at the icons of football, and how they performed in the world of the beautiful game for the past 12 month. Along with major impactful events in men’s football, the women of the sport all have their colossal contribution to uplift women’s football. We are listing below the male and female footballer we expect to dominate the game in the new year of 2020.Advertisement Image Courtesy: Barcelona/Juventus/GettyWhile there was no short of drama in men’s football this year, there have been a positive progress and uplifting of women’s football in 2019, especially after the FIFA Women’s World Cup, where female footballers took a stand for equal pay in the sport. As we head into 12 months of football, there will be male and female players that will come out on top.Let’s look at the two categories:Advertisement Male footballer that will dominate 2020:FC Barcelona talisman Lionel Messi won the 2019 Ballon d’Or award, this year for a record sixth time. Although after a lackluster performance in the 2019 CONMEBOL Copa América, and the fiasco that followed, the Argentine forward’s consistent performance in La Liga put him above everyone else. The 32 year old veteran is expected to produce another year of amazing football.However, talking about age, the man who is showing absolute masterclass at a stupendous age of 34 is none other than Cristiano Ronaldo. Although not winning the Ballon d’Or, the Juventus talisman has been named the Serie A’s player of the year, thanks to his tremendous form. As new year approaches, we expected to see him dominating the Italian league.Advertisement Liverpool superstar Virgil van Dijk, has been an inevitable presence in the Reds’ recent path to glory. Already considered the best center back in current English top flight football and one of the best in the world, the Dutch deender is a dominant force in the Red’s defense.Juventus FC’s Dutch wonderkid Matthijs de Ligt was chosen as the best young talent. The 20 year old center back’s form at Ajax last season gathered eyes all around, and hepled him to land a contact with the Bianconeri.Our verdict: Lionel Messi Despite the Copa América controversies and backlash from pundits and football fans, we expect Lionel Messi to dominate the beautiful game for the next 12 months. The 32 year old is already leading the La Liga goal scoring table with 13 goals and 6 assists.Female footballer that will dominate 2020:The year of 2019 has been very impactful in the world of women’s football. The 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup in France was the spotlight for the female superstars of the beautiful game to speak up about FIFA’s controversial pay gap scheme, and the leading face of the movement has been the United States icon Megan Rapinoe.Rapinoe, the Reign FC star, captained the United States women’s national soccer team to lift the world cup trophy in France, and was rightfully deserving to receive the Ballon d’Or Féminin award.English right back Lucy Bronze, who has been in tremendous form with Ligue 1 side Olympique Lyonnais, came in second. Megan’s compatriot Alex Morgan secured third place, who both were joint highest goalscorers in the World Cup with 6 goals, along with England striker Ellen White.Our verdict: Megan RapinoeThe female Ballon d’Or winner Megan Rapinoe has been the front face of women’s football in the past year, and also received the Golden Boot and Golden Ball awards at the World Cup. Imagining the year of 2020, and Rapinoe will be the master of the world of women’s football for another year for sure.Also read-Most Influential Women in FootballLionel Messi wins record 6th Ballon d’Or as Virgil van Dijk comes in second Advertisementlast_img read more

TOP BREEDERS’ CUP TRAINERS, JOCKEYS AND OWNERS TO APPEAR AT BREEDERS’ CUP MEDIA DAY AND BRUNCH WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 2 AT SANTA ANITA PARK

first_imgWHO:              Top trainers and Jockeys who are competing in the 33rd Breeders’ Cup World Championships will be available for open session interviews.  *An updated list of jockeys and trainers appearing will be sent on Monday, October 31. * WHEN:           Wednesday, November 2 – 10:30-11:30 a.m. Following the media availability, a casual buffet brunch will be served for the media to enjoy. The Breeders’ Cup World Championships, consisting of 13 Grade 1 races and purses and awards totaling $28 million, will be held at Santa Anita Park for a record ninth time on Friday, November 4 and Saturday, November 5, featuring racing superstar California Chrome and 11 former and returning Breeders’ Cup Champions. WHERE:         Santa Anita Park – Arcadia, CA – At Top O’ The Stretch – West Grandstand PARKING:     Santa Anita Park is located at 285 West Huntington Dr. – Arcadia, CA  91007. However, do not follow GPS directions to this address, as they will send you to the wrong gate. Top trainers, jockeys and owners involved in the Breeders’ Cup World Championships will be in attendance for a media day to assist media in their advance coverage of the event. Approximately 12 trainers, jockeys and owners will each be seated at their individual stations, and media can move around the room to secure multiple interviews. This represents the best and most convenient time for media to gather material from many of the key participants in horse racing’s end-of-season championship races. WHAT:           Breeders’ Cup Media Day and Brunch Media should enter through Gate 8:From I-210, exit Baldwin and go South 7/10 of a mile to Santa Anita Park.Go left just before the sign for the Westfield Mall (which abuts Santa Anita’s property. Stay to the left and do not enter the mall parking lot.Stay left at the fork along the hedges (going right will take you into the main parking lot) and pull up to the guard shack.Ask to be directed to Clockers’ Corner and park near the large, two-story white tent.Media Day will be held at the Top O’ the Stretch, at track level just east of Clockers’ Corner.Contact: Jim Gluckson, Breeders’ Cup, 646-335-6835last_img read more

CLOUDIER, SHOWERS: THE DD MONDAY WEATHER REPORT WITH THE MOUNT ERRIGAL HOTEL

first_imgDONEGAL Daily Weather Report, in association with The Mount Errigal Hotel, Letterkenny, Tel 07491 22700. It’s Josper Monday – order a Josper Grill inspired main course and get a delicious homemade dessert FREE – today at Dexter’s at Mount Errigal Hotel. Monday’s Donegal Weather: After another superb weekend, there will be a great deal more cloud across the county today. It was start dull in most places, the odd shower, especially in the north of the county.Temperatures by the afternoon will reach around 15C, so it is staying mild. And we might get some sunny spells between very light afternoon showers.It will become cold on Monday night as temperatures drop to around 6C in coastal areas and as low as 3C inland.Sources: Met eireann, BBCNI, Sky. DON’T FORGET: It’s Josper Monday – order a Josper Grill inspired main course and get a delicious homemade dessert FREE – today at Dexter’s at the Mount Errigal Hotel. Great food and great service – in all weathers! Tomorrow Monday will be dry in most areas for much of the day with sunny intervals. However well scattered showers will affect mainly inland areas during the afternoon and evening. Highest temperatures of 14 to 17 degrees with light variable breezes.CLOUDIER, SHOWERS: THE DD MONDAY WEATHER REPORT WITH THE MOUNT ERRIGAL HOTEL was last modified: April 27th, 2014 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:clouddonegal daily weatherletterkennyMount Errigal Hotelshowerssunshinelast_img read more

Another Tetrapod Ancestor Claimed

first_imgMaybe the Aussies want their share of missing link notoriety; an unusual fish with bony fins has been discovered in western Australia, reported in Nature.1  The bigger the splash a missing link makes for reporters, the better.  The story on Science Daily said, “A fossil fish discovered in the West Australian Kimberley has been identified as the missing clue in vertebrate evolution, rewriting a century-old theory on how the first land animals evolved.”  The discoverers named it Gogonasus after the Gogo Station near where it was found.  They claim this little fossil fish, claimed to be over 380 million years old, is “the ultimate ‘Mother’ of all tetrapods.”    OK, so what is special about this fish, compared to other alleged tetrapod ancestors?  Science Daily wrote,The fossil skeleton shows the fish’s skull had large holes for breathing through the top of the head but importantly also had muscular front fins with a well-formed humerus, ulna and radius – the same bones are found in the human arm.Actually, no baseball pitcher could operate with a borrowed Gogonasus arm, but this means that the structure and arrangement of the bones (i.e., one upper-arm bone and two lower-arm bones) was established early on in the fossil record.  Moreover, this “proves that features of land-living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) evolved much earlier in their evolutionary history than previously thought,” according to team member Erich Fitzgerald.  They think this fish lived at a pivotal time for all subsequent evolution, “from dinosaurs, to kangaroos, and ultimately, us humans.”    One problem is that, till now, scientists thought tetrapods evolved in the northern hemisphere.  Tiktaalik, you recall, was found in the arctic (04/06/2006).    The actual paper gets into some messy details that complicate the simple missing-link angle.  “Unexpectedly, Gogonasus shows a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived tetrapod-like features,” Long et al wrote.  Plesiomorphic invokes the notion of a generalized similarity, where derived hints at an ancestral lineage.  Where do they decide to put it in the tree along with other alleged missing link candidates?Whereas the braincase and dermal cranial skeleton exhibit generalized morphologies with respect to Eusthenopteron or Panderichthys, taxa that are traditionally considered to be phyletically close to tetrapods, the presence of a deeply invaginated, wide spiracle, advanced internal spiracular architecture and near-horizontal hyomandibula are specialized features that are absent from Eusthenopteron.  Furthermore, the pectoral fin skeleton of Gogonasus shares several features with that of Tiktaalik, the most tetrapod-like fish.  A new phylogenetic analysis places Gogonasus crownward of Eusthenopteron as the sister taxon to the Elpistostegalia.  Aspects of the basic tetrapod limb skeleton and middle ear architecture can now be traced further back within the tetrapodomorph radiation.Part of the problem is that they want this fish to represent an earlier contender for a tetrapod-wannabee yet it shares some similarities to the later Tiktaalik.  Wherever it fits, there’s going to be some ’splainin’ to do:The conspicuously large spiracular opening (Fig. 1a-c) is proportionally similar to those recently reconstructed for Panderichthys and Tiktaalik.  The pectoral fin endoskeleton of Gogonasus is described here for the first time (Fig.  2), the new specimen being the only known Devonian fish that shows a complete acid-prepared pectoral limb.  There are some surprising similarities to the recently described pectoral fin in the advanced elpistostegalian Tiktaalik.  As such features could indicate homoplasy between Gogonasus and early tetrapods, we present a revised character analysis to determine whether the new anatomical information supports a more crownward position for Gogonasus in the stem-tetrapod phylogeny.In other words, they invoke the old Darwinian explanation of convergent evolution (homoplasy) to explain why this early fish would have similar structures to a later one.  For example, in the spiracle, “No previously described tetrapodomorph fish shows such a large spiracular opening, or a downward facing dermal lamina forming a posterior wall to the spiracular chamber, so the condition in Gogonasus is highly unusual,” they wrote.  How to explain it?  “This indicates that spiracular breathing might have evolved independently in some stem tetrapodomorphs.”  Yet spiracular breathing is no simple single-mutation change.  It would have involved multiple adaptations involving soft parts as well as bone—making independent convergence on the same pattern highly improbable.  Another problem is that if this specimen is a perfect intermediate between two other candidates in terms of the angle of the spiracle,2 what’s it doing down under when the other fossils are up yonder?    Getting into the fin bones, the authors state that various interpretations are possible.  “Such features can be interpreted as either generalized (plesiomorphic) for Gogonasus and elpistostegalians, or shared apomorphies that unite them, and as such would exclude the rhizodontids and tristichopterids from the higher clade.”  Indeed, their phylogenetic diagram (figure 3) shows two very different possible trees.  Nothing in the paper suggests that there is any certainty to their favorite solution.  There are plenty of “may have” and “might have” qualifiers in the text, and even their proposal overturns previous beliefs and raises new questions.3  They can only speculate about what environment any of the creatures lived in, and how different forms arrived at different parts of the globe.    One other thing.  Whatever happened, happened quickly.  Based on the assumed dates of these bones, and the scatter of different specimens from China to Europe, from the arctic to Australia, “indicates that the initial radiation of tetrapods from elpistostegalian fishes, with evidence currently confined to the northern hemisphere landmass of Euramerica, was probably an extremely rapid global event.”1Long et al, “An exceptional Devonian fish from Australia sheds light on tetrapod origins,” Nature advance online publication 18 October 2006 | doi:10.1038/nature05243; Received 4 June 2006; Accepted 11 September 2006; Published online 18 October 2006.2Ibid, “The shallower angle of the spiracular chamber margin in Gogonasus (Fig. 1g) is a perfect intermediate morphology between the deeper spiracular chamber of Eusthenopteron (Fig. 1h) and the almost horizontal chamber of Panderichthys (Fig. 1f).  However, in having the entopterygoid located lateral to the ventral opening of the spiracular tract, the condition in Panderichthys is more derived than either Eusthenopteron or Gogonasus.3e.g., “Our new phylogeny replaces the tristichopterid Eusthenopteron as the typical fish model for the fish-tetrapod transition.  It also raises the question of what environment the immediate stem group of the elpistostegalians inhabited.  The marine environment inhabited by Gogonasus is in accord with the marginal marine environments of some elpistostegalians (Panderichthys, Elpistostege, Tiktaalik) and the tetrapod Tulerpeton.  Such observations support a model in which the first tetrapods, like their immediate piscine sister taxa, were capable of marine dispersal, thus explaining the widespread global distribution achieved shortly after their first appearance in the late Frasnian.When you read scientific papers, with all their unknowns, all their qualifiers and disclaimers and uncertainties and admissions of doubt and lack of evidence, then read the popular news reports gleaming with confidence and glittering generalities glibly stating how some new fossil proves evolution, it gets really disgusting.  Any Darwin Party advocate holding up a stack of science journals at a school board meeting and claiming they represent mounds of evidence backing up Charlie’s wacko story about humans coming from bacteria is either a charlatan or a dupe of the popular press.    When you hear a wild, reckless claim like “This is the mother of all tetrapods!” don’t be a sucker.  Read the original source paper like we do.  It has the fine print.  It suggests a revised claim that, unfortunately, makes for a very poor sound bite for reporters: something like:If we could figure out how these shallow-water inhabitants got from Australia to the arctic, and if we had the soft parts, and if we understood how morphological features could appear and disappear and re-appear within a Darwinian mechanism, and if we could unscramble these mosaics and redistribute them into lineages, and if we had the vaguest idea of what kind of environments the creatures actually lived in, and if we could rule out the possibility (as in Coelacanth) that the observed bones were used for other purposes other than what we expect, and if we could wiggle out of the Lamarckian charge of orthogenesis, and if we could somehow connect these morphological differences to beneficial mutations that natural selection could act on (with no purpose or goal in mind that they might prove advantageous on land, if both the breathing apparatus and the fin bones were to get lucky at the same time), then we might be able to make the claim that our particular fossil fits somewhere in an ancestral relationship to tetrapods, however controversial, that could be a contender in scientific conferences, and could get us some powerpoint slides that won’t be criticized, and might get us some brief popularity at the closing dinner, and maybe even a question from a reporter, or at least avoidance of ridicule, until our rivals find something else the following spring that blows our entire scheme out of the water.That, discerning students, is how real Darwinism is done.(Visited 28 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Australian Women’s team to train at RAAF Base Amberley

first_imgThe Australian Women’s Open team’s final weekend training camp before the 2015 World Cup will look a little different to usual. The team will travel to the Royal Australian Air Force Base Amberley, Brisbane this Saturday to take part in a day of training. The day will include a range of activities, including a photo shoot with a Super Hornet, over-pool obstacle course, meet and greet with a range of Air Force female personnel and a ‘social’ game against the Amberley team. After that it will be back on the field for a final training session in the lead up to the 2015 World Cup, which will be played from Wednesday, 29 April until Sunday, 3 May at C.ex Coffs International Stadium, Coffs Harbour. Australian Women’s Open coach, Peter Bell said that the opportunity to participate in a day like this in the lead up to the World Cup was too good to miss. “The coaching staff had been looking for a variation to their usual/normal hard training sessions and in the lead up to the World Cup an opportunity to visit the RAAF Base came up,” Bell said. “We thought it would be good doing the ropes course out there as well as some interaction with personnel that actually represent their country in a more serious and important role – namely the security of our country. “We thought it would make for a good bonding opportunity too, given it was our last hit out before the World Cup. Most of the girls are so young I saw it as an educational opportunity as most of them wouldn’t know what a Super Hornet is let alone the enormity of the 60-plus different jobs that Air Force women do.”Group Captain Michael Gray said “it is a great opportunity for the RAAF to host Australia’s best players and have them interact with Air Force personnel. The Australian players are clearly dedicated, motivated and have great levels of fitness. Those traits are common with our Air Force people, many of who play Touch at various representative levels around Australia. “We are proud of the work-life balance that we offer our people. Sport, fitness and teamwork is an integral part of Air Force life and essential in all our challenging but rewarding positons.“We are really looking forward to hosting the team at our great facilities at Amberley and hopefully help them win the World Cup for Australia. Who knows we may even sign some up for a career in the Air Force afterwards!”  For more information about jobs in the Air Force, please click on the following link – http://www.defencejobs.gov.au/airforce/jobsDirectory/Stay tuned to the TFA website and social media channels for stories and photos over the weekend:Website – www.touchfootball.com.auFacebook – www.facebook.com/touchfootballaustraliaTwitter – www.twitter.com/touchfootyausInstagram – www.instagram.com/touchfootballaustralia Related LinksTouch World Cuplast_img read more

Jim Harbaugh’s Michigan Practice Playlist Features AC/DC, KISS, And His Surprising Favorite Song

first_imgHead coach Jim Harbaugh of the Michigan Wolverines (L) jogs off the fiedl with his brother Baltimore Ravens head coach John Harbaugh (R) following halftime of the Michigan and Maryland Terrapins.COLLEGE PARK, MD – OCTOBER 03: Head coach Jim Harbaugh of the Michigan Wolverines (L) jogs off the fiedl with his brother Baltimore Ravens head coach John Harbaugh (R) following halftime of the Michigan and Maryland Terrapins game at Byrd Stadium on October 3, 2015 in College Park, Maryland. (Photo by Rob Carr/Getty Images)Like many teams, Jim Harbaugh’s Michigan Wolverines listen to music during practice. Harbaugh’s inclusions in the playlist include many of the rock staples you’d expect from a 51 year old football coach. You have some AC/DC, some KISS, both very standard. The playlist also includes Jim Harbaugh’s favorite song, which doesn’t strike us as something you’d play to get players pumped for practice.What music does Jim Harbaugh play at #Michigan practices? pic.twitter.com/VzNpp6l3IH— Ben Fidelman (@bfidelman) September 6, 2015 Gordon Lightfoot’s song does have plenty of references to the Midwest. The shipwreck motif is a bit strange, but we probably shouldn’t question Harbaugh’s methods. The man rebuilt Stanford, he can play some Lightfoot if he wants.last_img read more

Statistics Canada says wholesale sales gained 15 per cent in July

first_imgOTTAWA – Statistics Canada says wholesale sales rose 1.5 per cent to $62.4 billion in July boosted by the building material and supplies subsector as well as the food, beverage and tobacco group.The agency says sales were up in five of the seven subsectors, representing 86 per cent of total wholesale sales.The building material and supplies subsector posted the largest gain in dollar terms for the month as it increased 4.8 per cent to $9.0 billion.The food, beverage and tobacco subsector rose 2.4 per cent to $12.2 billion.Sales in the miscellaneous subsector fell 1.3 per cent to $8.0 billion.Overall wholesale sales were up 2.1 per cent in volume terms.last_img read more